At the very start of the pandemic, several researchers started treated patients suffering from COVID-19 using corticosteroids.
Many patients developed cytokine storm (a hyperimmune reaction) to the viral infection in their body that permit the use of corticosteroids because now it is making more biological sense.
Not just that, some of these cases face the overreaction of the immune system because of this drug that caused severe damage to the lungs and other organs and leads to the death of the patient.
Use of anti-inflammatory medicines
Effective anti-inflammatory medicines such as Dexamethasone, prednisone, and methylprednisolone are the corticosteroid currently being used.
They are relatively low-priced and easily accessible. In most areas where the percentage of people diagnosed with severe COVID-19 is high, the NIH COVID 19 treatment recommendations prescribe dexamethasone usage.
Patients who required artificial oxygen or ventilators and who received dexamethasone were less likely to die within 28 days than those who received standard care. Dexamethasone did not have any benefit in patients who did not need respiratory support.
The guidelines were based on the RECOVERY trial findings. The research constitutes delivering either standard care or dexamethasone dose in over 6,000 patients diagnosed with COVID-19.
In October 2020, COVID-19 was approved by the FDA for the treatment of antiviral remdesivir. The medication can be used by adults and children of 12 years and older who have been hospitalized for COVID-19. Clinical trials show that remdesivir can modestly accelerate recovery time for these patients.
Use of remdesiver and baricitinib
In November 2020, remdesivir when combine with baricitinib was given to hospitalized adults and children 2 years and older who need respiratory assistance, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the use of baricitinib.
However, there is also insufficient evidence to accept dexamethasone with or without re-desivir because of this treatment.
Medicines for anticoagulation (“blood thinners”)
Almost every person gets medicines to avoid blood clots in the hospital with COVID. Heparin or enoxaparin is commonly prescribed in reduced doses.
But, if patients still have blood clots or are at high risk, they need a maximum dosage of anticoagulants. When administering full doses doctors still have to weigh the chance of harmful bleeding.
Role of Anixa Biosciences and OntoChem
Moreover, Anixa Biosciences together with OntoChem also working on the use of remdisivir as well as anixa compounds. By utilizing advanced technologies and scientific research, soon they are expected to come up with vaccine for COVID 19.
Although they both together have made significant improvements in the manufacturing of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus vaccines and therapies, there is much more to be achieved.
In the US, remdesivir and a range of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody preparations are the only medication (COVID-19 antiviral) obtained with FDA Emergency Use Authorization is far from 100% efficacy and quite expensive.
Perelman School of Medicine (University of Pennsylvania) research
Nine possible new drugs for COVID-19 include three already approved for other conditions by the Food & Drug Administration and proved safe to use by a team of scientists and researchers.
Thousands of drug-like molecules and drugs were examined for the inhibition ability against the replicating of SARS-CoV-2 by the team.
In comparison to several previous studies, anti-coronaviral molecules have been tested in a range of cell types, including human airway-lining cells that are identical to those primarily affected by COVID-19.
That the nine medicines that have been shown to minimize the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory cells, 3 have FDA approval: cyclosporine (the transplant-rejection drug), dacomitinib (the cancer drug), and salinomycin (the antibiotic). They can be tested quickly on patients with COVID-19 and volunteers.
In addition, studies have shown that the antiviral remdesivir, which has an FDA Emergency Use Authorization for the treatment of COVID-19, seems to be working against the virus in the cell culture tests of respiratory cells, while hydroxychloroquine does not show positive results.
Screening tests for biological targets of vaccine
Cherry and colleagues have set up a library for their screening project of 3,059 chemicals, of which about 1,000 FDA licenced medications and over 2,000 medicinal molecules have demonstrated efficacy against such biological targets.
They all tested for their abilität, without having to cause any toxicity, to considerably block SARS-CoV-2 replication in infected cells.
Initially, antiviral screens were conducted using cell types that could easily be cultivated in the laboratory and infected by SARS-coV-2.
The kidney cells were African Green Monkey and the human liver cell lines were used. With these screens, several compounds which function in the aphids and 23 which worked in the cells of the human liver were detected and validated.
Then this was applied as a malaria medicine and remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine was selective in both cell groups.
As SARS-CoV-2 is primarily a respiratory virus and is thought to lead to infections by cells lined with the airways, the researchers have been searching for a kind of respiratory cell that can infect the virus experimentally.
Finally, a suitable cell line was found, Calu-3, which comes from human cells that line airways.
They tested the antiviral compounds known in the human liver cell screen using these respiratory-derived cells and found that only nine were active in these new cells.
Hydroxychloroquine was not used among the nine. (Remdesivir was in use in cells in Calu-3, but not on the list because of COVID-19 use already.)
The researchers also clarify the mechanisms SARS-CoV-2 uses to enter cells by identifying different sets of drugs that function inside different cell types.
The results show that the virus uses a mechanism that, for example, hydroxychloroquine could interrupt in the cell of the liver and the kidney; however, a separate mechanism in air cells seems to be used to justify the lack of efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in those cells and clinical trials conducted under COVID 19.
The 9 antiviral actives in respiratory cells included salinomycin, a veterinary antibiotic which has also been examined as an anti-cancer medicine; the kinase enzyme inhibitor dacomitinib, an anti-cancer drug; Bemcentinib, a further kinase inhibitor now being tested; ebastin, an antihistamine medicine; and cyclosporine.
Cyclosporine is highlighted as particularly promising since it tends to act in respiratory and non-respiratory cells against SARS-CoV-2 and by two distinct mechanisms: an inhibiting cell-enzyme known as cyclophilins that are disabled by the coronavirus, and the suppression of potentially lethal inflammation in extreme COVID-19.