Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
BMR is also called resting metabolic rate (RMR) or basal energy expenditure (BEE).
BMR (RMR/BEE) is the energy expended by an individual in basal condition.
Basal condition is characterized by
- 12-hour fasting
- Overnight sound sleep
- Complete mental and physical rest (voluntary activity at a minimum).
- Comfortable environment temperature and pressure
It is the minimum energy expenditure by an individual in a resting post-absorptive state.
It is measured 12 hours after the last meal under controlled conditions of thermal neutrality.
Here energy is spent on basic physiological activities like
- Cardiac activity
- Respiratory activity
- Renal function
- Neural activity
- GIT movement
- Temperature regulation
- Muscle tone maintenance
- Ion transport
- Synthesis of the hormone, energy, etc.
BMR accounts for 60-70% of total energy expenditure and physical activity accounts for the rest. About 45% of BMR is spent on ion transport, especially for the sodium-potassium pump.
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